Ciclo mestruale, Concepimento

Ciclo mestruale fasi dell’apparato genitale femminile

Ciclo mestruale fasi

Quante informazioni hai sulle ciclo mestruale fasi? Conoscere il funzionamento del nostro apparato genitale è fondamentale per preservare la nostra salute.
Il ciclo mestruale è un intervallo temporale ricorrente nella vita di una donna. Le ciclo mestruale fasi si susseguono ogni mese dai 12-15 anni fino ai 45-55 anni. Le fasi del ciclo mestruale iniziano con il menarca e terminano con la menopausa.
Le fasi del ciclo mestruale sono regolate da ormoni prodotti dall’ipofisi e dalle ovaie. L’ipofisi, una ghiandola endocrina che risiede nella base del cranio, produce le gonadostimoline. Questi ormoni vengono poi inviati alle ovaie che, a loro volta, stimolano sia la maturazione dell’ovulo che la produzione di estrogeni.
I cambiamenti fisiologici femminili periodici possono essere distinti in 5 ciclo mestruale fasi. Le fasi sono: mestruale, proliferativa, ovulatoria, secretiva iniziale, secretiva tardiva.

Flusso mestruale

Durante questa fase l’endometrio, il tessuto di rivestimento uterino, va in necrosi. Tale morte cellulare causa un distaccamento in lembi ed il sanguinamento di vene e arterie esposte. Ogni mese tramite il flusso mestruale ogni donna subisce una perdita di circa 40 ml di sangue misto a residui necrotici di endometrio. Contemporaneamente, nell’ovaio inizia lo sviluppo di alcuni follicoli. Aumenta, inoltre, la secrezione dell’ormone follicolo-stimolante, FSH o follitropina, prodotto dall’ipofisi. La maggiore secrezione di follitropina favorisce la maturazione del follicolo e sollecita, nell’ovaio, la produzione di estrogeni. Questa fase dura dal giorno 1 al 5.

ciclo mestruale fasi

Fase proliferativa

Nell’utero avviene la rigenerazione e proliferazione dell’endometrio. Le cellule epiteliali che rivestono la vagina formano uno stato più spesso che rappresenta un ambiente più favorevole per gli spermatozoi. Nell’ovaio un solo follicolo prosegue il suo processo di maturazione. Si verifica un notevole aumento di estrogeni con picco massimo poco prima dell’ovulazione, per poi decrescere rapidamente.
Il progesterone, secreto dall’ovaio, aumenta gradualmente. L’FSH prima diminuisce, poi prolifera poco prima dell’ovulazione. Anche l’LH, ormone lutenizzante, prodotto dall’ipofisi aumenta.
Queste trasformazioni avvengono dal giorno 6 al 14 delleciclo mestruale fasi.

Ovulazione

Nell’utero, l’endometrio raggiunge il massimo ispessimento. Nell’ovaio il rilascio di LH fa maturare l’ovocita e indebolisce la parete del follicolo provocando l’espulsione dell’ovulo. Gli estrogeni diminuiscono velocemente mentre il progesterone continua ad aumentare. Specie nelle prime ore della mattina, si può osservare un lieve aumento della temperatura basale corporea di circa mezzo grado.
L’ovulazione avviene nel giorno 14-15. La durata ovulazione è infatti di 24 ore.

Fase secretiva

Si divide in due momenti: fase secretiva iniziale nei giorni dal 16 al 23 e in fase secretiva tardiva dal giorno 24 al 28.
L’endometrio rimane al massimo del suo spessore, mentre nella vagina l’epitelio si assottiglia. Contemporaneamente nell’ovaio si forma il corpo luteo.
Dal giorno 24 inizia nell’ovaio la regressione del corpo luteo.
La diminuzione dei livelli di progesterone porta ad un nuovo sfaldamento della mucosa uterina e quindi alla successiva mestruazione.

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