Gravidanza, Malattie

Toxoplasmosi sintomi: quali sono e come riconoscerli

toxoplasmosi sintomi

Toxoplasmosi sintomi

La toxoplasmosi è un’infezione causata da un parassita, il Toxoplasma gondii, che di solito infetta le cellule del gatto, ma anche di altri mammiferi, come gli uccelli. La modalità di infezione più frequente è l’ingestione di cibo contaminato da questo parassita, che può avvenire mangiando carne cruda o poco cotta, soprattutto di maiale o di agnello, e in generale cibo crudo e non lavato correttamente, come frutta e verdura. Anche in seguito a trasfusioni e trapianti di organi è possibile contrarre il parassita. La toxoplasmosi è particolarmente pericolosa in gravidanza, soprattutto durante il primo trimestre, perché può essere trasmessa per via transplacentare dalla madre al bambino.

Toxoplasmosi sintomi in gravidanza

Se una donna incinta contrae la toxoplasmosi, questa può essere facilmente trasmessa al feto. Se una donna contrae l’infezione prima della gravidanza, invece, è probabile che abbia sviluppato immunità al parassita e quindi non la trasmetterà. I bambini che vengono infettati durante il primo trimestre di gravidanza della mamma tendono a manifestare i sintomi più gravi. Quando il bambino contrae la toxoplasmosi dalla madre durante la gestazione, si parla di toxoplasmosi congenita. Di solito, gli unici sintomi immediati sono la nascita prematura e l’essere sottopeso, mentre altri sintomi compaiono dopo mesi o anni dalla nascita e sono:

  • febbre,
  • linfonodi gonfi,
  • ittero (aumento dei livelli di bilirubina, che provoca pelle e occhi gialli),
  • testa troppo grande o troppo piccola (microcefalia),
  • lividi ed ematomi,
  • anemia,
  • fegato e milza ingrossati,
  • esantema,
  • disturbi del sistema nervoso (epilessia, perdita dell’udito, ritardo mentale),
  • scarso tono muscolare,
  • difficoltà ad alimentarsi,
  • danni alla vista, in particolare alla retina.

La toxoplasmopsi congenita deve essere diagnosticata e curata correttamente subito, in caso contrario si manifesteranno i problemi sopraelencati durante l’infanzia o l’adolescenza. In bambini immunodepressi, la toxoplasmosi può essere addirittura letale, per questo non bisogna sottovalutarne i sintomi.

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