Gravidanza, Parto

Travaglio: tutte le fasi del parto naturale


Il travaglio è la fase del parto naturale nella quale iniziano le contrazioni uterine che porteranno alla nascita del bambino. Il travaglio consta di diverse fasi, a partire dalla rottura delle acque e dalla perdita del tappo mucoso, fino all’espulsione del feto e al secondamento, ovvero l’ultima fase del parto durante la quale viene espulsa la placenta. Ma come accorgersi dell’inizio del parto? Quali sono i sintomi del travaglio? Innanzitutto la comparsa di contrazioni sempre più forti e a cadenza regolare, che provocano la dilatazione della cervice. Molte donne descrivono i dolori del travaglio come simili a quelli delle mestruazioni, ma più forti. La percezione del dolore cambia da donna a donna, ma state tranquille, quando sarà arrivato il momento ve ne accorgerete! Vediamo ora nei dettagli le fasi del travaglio.

Travaglio: fase iniziale

A dare l’avvio al travaglio nel parto naturale è il bambino, che invia alla placenta dei segnali chimici affinché inizi la produzione di enzimi che stimolano la produzione di estrogeni. Nella prima fase del travaglio, detta pre-parto, la cervice comincia ad assottigliarsi, si perde il tappo mucoso e compaiono le cosidette “contrazioni di Braxton Hicks”, irregolari e poco dolorose, sopportabili. In questa fase la donna può restare a casa, almeno fino a quando la dilatazione non raggiunge i 4 centimetri circa e inizia il vero e proprio travaglio.

Travaglio: fase attiva

Durante la fase attiva del travaglio, il collo dell’utero si dilata e si ritrae verso l’interno. Il suo allungamento provoca la produzione nell’ipofisi dell’ossitocina, responsabile delle contrazioni, che diventano quindi più forti, dolorose, ravvicinate e regolari. Aumenta anche la dilatazione del collo dell’utero, di circa un centimetro all’ora.

parto-distocicoTravaglio: fase espulsiva

Nella fase espulsiva del travaglio, la dilatazione è di circa 8-10 centimetri e il bambino viene spinto verso il canale vaginale, per uscire dal pavimento pelvico. Durante questa fase è molto forte l’impulso a spingere e può essere presente anche sensazione di dover svuotare l’intestino. È importante, però, seguire le istruzioni dell’ostetrica e non esagerare, per evitare di lacerare il perineo. Questa fase si conclude, ovviamente, con la nascita del bambino.

Travaglio ultima fase: il secondamento

L’ultima fase del travaglio è quella del secondamento, durante la quale vengono espulse placenta e membrane. Ovviamente, sappiate che le fasi del travaglio non sempre sono così nettamente distinte, ma si fondono tra loro. Ogni donna avrà una diversa percezione del parto, che potrà durare un giorno intero, alcune ore o essere molto più rapido di quanto ci si aspetti.

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