Gravidanza, Parto

Parto cesareo programmato: come, quando e perché

parto-cesareoParto cesareo programmato

L’ideale per ogni mamma sarebbe partorire in modo naturale, magari con un parto rapido e poco doloroso, senza complicazioni. Purtroppo, a volte non è possibile e si deve ricorrere ad un taglio cesareo programmato o d’urgenza. Al cesareo d’urgenza si ricorre quando la salute della mamma o del bambino è a rischio ed è necessario intervenire subito, oppure quando il travaglio è cominciato spontaneamente, ma poi non si riesce a proseguire con un parto naturale. Il parto cesareo programmato, invece, viene stabilito prima dell’inizio del travaglio, in presenza di particolari condizioni che rendono impossibile il parto naturale, ovvero:

  • placenta previa,
  • bambino podalico,
  • bambino troppo grande rispetto al bacino della mamma,
  • precedenti tagli cesarei,
  • gravidanza gemellare.

Parto cesareo programmato: come avviene

Quando si programma un parto cesareo, circa un mese prima della nascita, la mamma viene sottoposta ad un pre-ricovero in ospedale, che dura in genere un’intera mattinata. Durante questo pre-ricovero, la futura mamma dovrà fare esami del sangue, elettrocardiogramma, visita ostetrica con ecografia e visita anestesiologica. La data del parto cesareo programmato verrà stabilita in base ai risultati degli esami, valutando le condizioni di salute di mamma e bambino, ma di solito è circa un mese dopo.

Parto cesareo programmato: a quante settimane?

Una delle domande più frequenti tra le future mamme è: a quante settimane va fatto il parto cesareo programmato? Di solito, il parto cesareo non dovrebbe mai essere programmato prima della 39° settimana, per evitare che il bambino prematuro possa avere difficoltà respiratorie, infezioni e bassi livelli di zucchero nel sangue. Ovviamente, in caso di complicazioni in gravidanza che mettono a rischio mamma e bambino, bisogna intervenire con un cesareo il prima possibile.

parto-cesareo-programmato-a-quante-settimaneParto cesareo programmato: rischi e svantaggi

Il parto naturale rimane sempre l’opzione migliore per mamma e bambino, ma in alcuni casi, come abbiamo già visto, il parto cesareo programmato può essere l’unica scelta possibile per evitare complicazioni. Tuttavia, è innegabile che il taglio cesareo abbia parecchi svantaggi. Per quanto riguarda il bambino, restare qualche ora o qualche giorno in più nell’utero migliora le sue capacità di adattamento all’ambiente esterno una volta nato e influisce positivamente sul sistema respiratorio, cardiaco e neurologico. La mamma, poi, durante un parto cesareo è meno partecipe e dopo ha bisogno di più tempo per riprendersi. Altri rischi, infine, sono:

  • emorragia con conseguente anemia,
  • infezioni alla ferita,
  • infezioni all’utero (endometrite),
  • lesioni alla vescica e all’intestino,
  • febbre,
  • stitichezza,
  • problemi di cicatrizzazione della ferita,
  • maggiore probabilità di placenta accreta e di placenta previa nelle gravidanze successive.
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