Ciclo mestruale, Concepimento

Sindrome premestruale: tutto quello che c’è da sapere

sindrome premestruale

Sindrome premestruale

Molte di noi nei giorni che precedono le mestruazioni sono affette dalla cosiddetta sindrome premestruale. Si tratta di un insieme di fastidiosi sintomi fisici e mentali, che si manifestano nella seconda fase del ciclo mestruale, ovvero nella fase luteica. Da alcune ricerche è emerso che circa l’80% delle donne soffre di dolori premestruali e altri fastidi, anche se solo per il 5% si può parlare di vera e propria sindrome . Se anche voi capite che le mestruazioni stanno arrivando dai dolori al basso ventre, dall’acne e dagli sbalzi d’umore, probabilmente siete tra le tante donne colpite. Anche se nella maggior parte dei casi non è nulla di grave, alcune volte questa sindrome può avere ripercussioni a livello sociale, a causa degli sbalzi d’umore. In casi estremi, può causare forte depressione e comportamenti psicotici.

Sindrome premestruale sintomi

Come abbiamo visto, tutte noi risentiamo dei sintomi mestruali, ma non sempre si può parlare di sindrome. La sindrome premestruale è caratterizzata da sintomi ben precisi, sia a livello fisico che psicologico. Essi sono:

  • tensione mammaria e dolore al seno,
  • ritenzione idrica,
  • stipsi,
  • pancia gonfia,
  • dolori muscolari,
  • acne,
  • irritabilità,
  • sbalzi d’umore,
  • ansia,
  • insonnia,
  • crisi di pianto,
  • stanchezza,
  • aumento della fame.

Non in tutte le donne si presentano tutti questi sintomi prima delle mestruazioni. Allo stesso tempo, in alcuni casi si possono avere anche perdite prima del ciclocapezzoli sensibili. Anche il mal di testa da ciclo è molto frequente nei giorni immediatamente precedenti l’arrivo delle mestruazioni.

sintomi-premestrualiSindrome premestruale cause

Non è stata ancora individuata una causa certa e univoca della sindrome premestruale, le più diffuse sono:

  • carenza di magnesio: sindrome premestruale e magnesio sono strettamente collegati, perché una carenza di questo minerale causa mal di testa, crampi muscolari e all’utero. Probabilmente, la carenza di magnesio è dovuta ad un aumento della produzione degli ormoni che regolano l’equilibrio dei sali minerali nel nostro organismo;
  • sbalzi ormonali: l’aumento degli estrogeni e della prolattina provoca la tensione mammaria e la ritenzione idrica. La diminuzione di dopamina e serotonina, endorfine che regolano l’umore, provoca gli sbalzi d’umore;
  • carenza di vitamina B6, importante nella sintesi di serotonina e dopamina, che regolano il tono dell’umore. La dopamina, inoltre, inibisce la produzione di prolattina e quindi una sua carenza ne provoca l’aumento, con le conseguenze viste più su.

In conclusione, possiamo dire che le cause sono sempre di natura ormonale e strettamente collegate tra loro.

Sindrome premestruale rimedi

Si può cercare di controllare i sintomi premestruali con diversi rimedi, farmacologici o naturali. Per quanto riguarda i primi, i più diffusi sono:

  • farmaci antidepressivi, solo su prescrizione medica per i casi più gravi. Posso essere assunti una volta al giorno durante tutto il ciclo mestruale oppure solo nelle due settimane che precedono le mestruazioni;
  • antinfiammatori non steroidei (FANS), come l’ibuprofene e il naprossene sodico. Possono essere utili per combattere i dolori mestruali già da alcuni giorni prima dell’arrivo delle mestruazioni;
  • diuretici, per ridurre e prevenire la ritenzione idrica, causa del gonfiore addominale e agli arti;
  • pillolo anticoncezionale, può essere prescritta dal medico per bloccare l’ovulazione e quindi ridurre i sintomi premestruali e la dismenorrea.

dolori-premestrualiSindrome premestruale rimedi naturali

Se preferite evitare il più possibile il consumo di farmaci, è possibile combattere la sindrome premestruali con rimedi naturali. Prima di tutto è importante partire dall’alimentazione, evitando i seguenti cibi nei giorni del ciclo che precedono le mestruazioni:

  • tè,
  • caffè,
  • coca cola,
  • bibite alcoliche,
  • dolci e alimenti ricchi di zuccheri semplici,
  • sale,
  • grassi saturi,
  • cibi in scatola contenenti glutammato.

Al contrario, andrebbero assunti in abbondanza pesce azzurro, soia (nella seconda metà del ciclo), frutta e verdura. È poi importante fare regolare attività fisica, soprattutto attività rilassanti come corsa, yoga e pilates. È utile anche assumere integratori a base di magnesio e vitamina B6, la cui carenza abbiamo visto essere causa di dolori muscolari e sbalzi d’umore. Infine, si può ricorrere a fitoterapici e tisane a base di angelica, verbena, melissa, biancospino, passiflora e agnocasto.

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