Ciclo mestruale, Concepimento

Ciclo mestruale, conosciamolo meglio

ciclo-mestrualeCiclo mestruale

Tutte le donne a partire dalla pubertà (tra gli 8 e i 12 anni) fino alla menopausa (tra i 45 e i 50 anni) hanno il proprio ciclo mestruale. Con questo termine si indica il lasso di tempo che va dall’inizio delle mestruazioni fino al primo giorno delle mestruazioni successive. Esso comprende tutta una serie di cambiamenti ciclici regolari, che mensilmente modificano il nostro corpo, preparandoci alla gravidanza. È molto importante conoscere bene il ciclo mestruale, perché è indicatore della nostra salute. Un ciclo mestruale irregolare, infatti, potrebbe essere segnale della presenza di qualche patologia, così come un ciclo scarso o uno al contrario troppo abbondante. L’assenza delle mestruazioni, poi, è come tutte sappiamo il primo e principale sintomo di gravidanza. Nonostante tutte noi pensiamo di sapere tutto al riguardo, in realtà molte non conoscono tutte le fasi del ciclo e come esso funziona. Scopriamolo insieme!

Ciclo mestruale durata e fasi

Il ciclo mestruale consta di diverse fasi, la cui durata può variare da donna a donna. In genere, un ciclo regolare dura in totale 28 giorni, a partire dal primo giorno delle mestruazioni. Il ciclo mestruale si divide in quattro fasi principali, che sono:

  1. fase mestruale (dal 1° al 5° giorno): durante la quale compaiono le mestruazioni e l’endometrio si sfalda provocando perdite ematiche;
  2. fase follicolare (dal 6° al 13° giorno): durante la quale nell’ovaio matura un follicolo e l’endometrio si riforma;
  3. ovulazione: essa avviene in media intorno al 14esimo giorno, quando l’endometrio raggiunge il suo massimo spessore e il follicolo maturato nell’ovaio si rompe, rilasciando nelle tube l’ovulo in esso contenuto. Tra i principali sintomi di ovulazione ci sono l’aumento della temperatura basale e le perdite vaginali trasparenti e fluide;
  4. fase luteale: dal 15° all’arrivo delle mestruazioni, dura circa 14 giorni. Durante questa fase il follicolo, che con l’ovulazione si libera della cellula uovo, diventa corpo luteo, ovvero una ghiandola endocrina temporanea che produce progesterone ed estrogeni. In questa fase spesso si presenta la cosiddetta sindrome premestruale.

dolori-mestrualiCiclo mestruale irregolare

Non sempre la durata del ciclo è di 28 giorni ed è sempre regolare, anzi. Soprattutto nelle donne giovani, è frequente un ciclo irregolare, di durata maggiore o inferiore. Diciamo che avere un ciclo di 21 giorni o uno di 35 non è grave, semplicemente ognuna di noi ha il proprio ciclo mestruale. Se però esso dura meno di 21 giorni o più di 35, oppure ancora le mestruazioni spariscono per mesi, allora è il caso di preoccuparsi. Fare il calcolo del ciclo mestruale è fondamentale per individuare eventuali anomalie. Per aiutarvi, potete redigere un calendario mestruale, segnando sul calendario l’inizio e la fine di ogni ciclo.

Ciclo mestruale irregolare cause

Abbiamo visto che nelle donne giovani non c’è da preoccuparsi in caso di piccole irregolarità. Talvolta, però, le cause del ciclo irregolare possono essere patologie come:

  • fibromi uterini, ovvero tumori benigni dell’utero;
  • sindrome dell’ovaio policistico, un disturbo caratterizzato da squilibri ormonali e cisti ovariche, i cui sintomi più frequenti sono dismenorrea, acne, irsutismo, insulino resistenza e obesità;
  • insufficienza ovarica precoce, ovvero la perdita della normale funzionalità ovarica prima dei 40 anni;
  • gravidanza e allattamento;
  • malattia infiammatoria pelvica, un’infezione batterica che colpisce l’apparato riproduttivo;
  • disturbi alimentari (anoressia, bulimia) ed eccessiva attività fisica.

Oltre alla durata più o meno breve, altre anomalie da non sottovalutare sono un ciclo mestruale scarso o al contrario un ciclo mestruale abbondante. In tutti questi casi, è importante rivolgersi al ginecologo per una visita di controllo.

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